Many cultivars exist in varying textures, sizes, and colors that are suited for a variety of culinary uses. The species is a rich source of protein, vitamin C and starch. group Tuberosum (S. tuberosum subsp., Flora of Missouri, 2014. It can tolerate an annual temperature of 3.6 to 27.8°C, but is a cool weather crop, growing best at 15-20°C for most cultivars (Duke, 1983). References. It is cultivated throughout the West Indies (Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012) and the upland regions of Mesoamerica (Gentry and D’Arcy, 1986), as well as throughout Europe, in much of Asia, and in many other regions. Botanical Name. Key features: Prefers rich soil Salad potatoes have grown in popularity in recent years, thanks to their delicious flavour and waxy texture. High temperatures during growth and storage tend to shorten dormancy and low temperatures prolong the dormancy period. Woolfe JA, 1987. Dyakov YuT, Derevjagina MK, 2000. To achieve their yield potential potato crops require well-distributed rainfall of 500-750 mm in a growing period of 3-4.5 months. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It and the flea beetle (principally Epitrix spp.) It was first introduced into Europe where selection began and from where cultivars spread to North America. S. tuberosum has a negative environmental impact if given the chance to become weedy; however because of its importance as one of the top staple food crops of the world, the species continues to be widely commercially cultivated. Dutch processors produced 1.47 million t of frozen French fries in 1990 compared with 6000 t in 1960., USDA-NRCS, 2014. Scientific Name(s): Solanum tuberosum L. Common Name(s): Irish potato, Potato, US russet, White potato Medically reviewed by A main stem grows directly from the seed tuber. Flora of Panama Checklist, Tropicos website. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is the most common method for the incorporation of foreign genes into the genome of potato as well as many other species in the Solanaceae family. Bond W, 1993. by Dale, M. F. B.\Dewar, A. M.\Fisherr, S. J.\Haydock, P. P. J.\Jaggard, K. W.\May, M. J.\Smith, H. G.\Storey, R. M. J.\Wiltshire, J. J. form a strategic partnership called N.C. Category : Veggies. Potatoes are most often grown from "seed potatoes"– small tubers or pieces of tubers that sprout into a new plant. The soil should be just moist when the tubers are planted. Type: Annual Family: Solanaceae Native Range: South America ... Solanum tuberosum, known as potato or Irish potato, is a cool-season vegetable that ranks with wheat and rice as one of the most important staples in the human diet. Tetraploid S. tuberosum can be classified into two cultivar groups, with the following characteristics: - cultivar group Andigena (subsp. Leaves alternate, petiolate, odd pinnately compound, with or without numerous interstitial leaflets, in outline 10-30 cm x 5-15 cm; lateral leaflets opposite or alternate, usually 3-4 pairs, very unequal in size, largest ones stalked, ovate to ovate-elliptical, 2-10 cm x 1-6 cm, smallest ones subsessile, ovate to suborbicular, 1-15 mm in diameter; terminal leaflet usually largest; all leaflets thinly to densely pubescent, dark green, pinnatinerved. 2.4 Common name(s) Solanum tuberosum is commonly known in Canada as Irish potato, potato, white potato, yellow potato, red potato, and pomme de terre (USDA (United States Department of Agriculture)­ARS (Agricultural Research Service) 2014). The Potato (Solanum tuberosum L., 1753) is an herbaceous plant reaching 60 to 150 cm of height (variable depending on the variety), belonging to the family of theSolanaceae.. Handbook of Energy Crops. This and the simple cooking methods contribute to potato's importance as a major world crop. The lower lateral branches from the main stem are called secondary stems. Whole, they may be boiled, roasted or steamed in their skins; they may be peeled and then boiled or steamed and mashed with margarine or butter, with or without milk, or they may be baked or roasted. andigena) and cv. Scientific name : Solanum tuberosum. Anal. It also depends on nutrition, tuber size and tuber health. Proceedings of the Western Society of Weed Science, 52:126. Insects, Diseases, and Other Problems:  Potato late blight will rot tubers and render them inedible. The potato. tuberosum (L.) Hawkes, Highly adaptable to different environments, Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc, Benefits from human association (i.e. In the short daylength conditions of the tropics and subtropics, maximum yields can usually be obtained in cool highland areas and in cooler seasons. Medicinal Uses. > 0°C, dry summers, Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter, Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. Tubers that have become green are poisonous, as the green colour indicates these tubers have produced alkaloids. N.C. The potato crop. Potato production and utilization in world perspective with special reference to the tropics and subtropics. Dicotyledonous Herbs other than Composites. Solanum tuberosum L. subsp. Genbank common name: potato NCBI BLAST name: eudicots Rank: species Genetic code: Translation table 1 (Standard) Mitochondrial genetic code: Translation table 1 (Standard) Papers on control of S. tuberosum are generally studies on volunteer potatoes as a weed in succeeding crops. London, UK: University of Nottingham, 281-291. Continuing selection has led to the establishment of numerous cultivars, a process still going on wherever the crop is grown. Twiss PTG, 1963. Quick facts. ex Dunal : Common Name(s): Irish potato [English] Taxonomic Status: Current Standing: accepted Data Quality Indicators: Record Credibility Rating: verified - standards met Fox RB, 1952. China. 135. (variety) batatas) belongs to a separate family (Convolvulaceae). Do this once the plants are one foot tall and once or twice more throughout the season. It was probably first domesticated in the Lake Titicaca region of Peru and Bolivia between 10,000 and 7,000 years ago. Phytoalexins [ed. June, 2012. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden, 78:1-581. However, naturally sprouted tubers without the use of chemicals are preferred as they give more uniform germination and better growth. > 10°C, Cold average temp. Plant production and protection paper 110. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Bolivia, Tropicos website. Solanum tuberosum L. Images from the web. Ingestion of green potatoes or potato sprouts can cause various symptoms which can be severe in some cases. They are also grown to a small extent in Mexico and Guatemala. by D'Arcy, W. G.]. New York, USA: Columbia University Press, 379-382. In: Solanaceae: biology and systematics [ed. Hims M, Hill S, 2001. The Alabama Plant Atlas is a source of data for the distribution of plants within the state as well as taxonomic, conservation, invasive, and wetland information for each species. Solanaceae, the nightshade, or potato, family of flowering plants (order Solanales), with 102 genera and nearly 2,500 species, many of considerable economic importance as food and drug plants. Papua New Guinea seed potato scheme technoguide. Solanaceae in China. Acta Mycologica Sinica. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Wiart C, 2006. While they are herbaceous perennials by nature, they are grown as annuals for harvesting. van der Zaag DE, Horton D, 1983. Compound (Pinnately , Bipinnately, Palmately). Based on archaeological and genetic evidence the first domestications occurred at least 8000 years ago in the high Andes of Peru and Bolivia (Hunziker, 1979; Cribb and Hawkes, 1986), and during the Spanish conquest the cultivated potato was being grown in the Andes, from Venezuela to northern Argentina and into the lowland regions of Chile (Cribb and Hawkes, 1986). Solanum tuberosum ‘Rocket’ produces very early crops of potatoes with near-white skin flesh that remain firm on cooking. New York, USA: Columbia University Press. Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanaceae) known as potatoes is a globally important crop plant producing high yields of nutritionally valuable food in the form of tubers [87]. , 1978. Cultivars vary in characteristics of their tubers, sprouts, foliage, flowers, growth cycle and disease resistance; much of the variability is also influenced by the environment. Pesticide Outlook, 11(5):181-185; 24 ref. Solanum tuberosum is the common cultivated potato known for its starchy tubers. Transgenic potatoes have been engineered to generate an immune response to Escherichia coli infection in humans and have potential as a new strategy for development of safe and inexpensive vaccines against diseases such as tetanus, diphtheria and hepatitis B. © Copyright 2021 CAB International. In some cases this results in data from more than one variety included in the graph. Papers from the International Symposium on the Biology and Systematics of the Solanaceae [ed. by D'Arcy, W. G.]. Genetic code: Translation table 1 (Standard) Mitochondrial genetic code: Translation table 1 (Standard) Plastid genetic code: Translation table 11 (Bacterial, Archaeal and Plant Plastid) Other names: common name (s) Flowers have yellow stamens and may be white to reds, pinks, purples, or blues. September, 2007. Classification of cultivated potatoes. Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Seed flat, subcircular to ovate, 1-3 mm in diameter, pale yellow-brownish. The website also provides access to a database and images of herbarium specimens found at the University of South Florida and other herbaria. The potato is a perennial plant that is easy to grow and wonderful to eat, freshly dug from the garden. The species was initially used in Europe to feed pigs, before becoming a staple crop for humans (Wiart, 2006). Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). The potato crop. In Papua New Guinea, for example, optimum growth of potato takes place at altitudes between 1500 and 2200 m above sea-level, where day temperatures are about 25°C and night temperatures about 20°C. Clinical Overview Use. Nausea, vomiting, salivation, drowsiness, abdominal pain, diarrhea, weakness, respiratory depression; may be fatal. Cribb PJ, Hawkes JG, 1986. Tropicos. One or more of the features that are needed to show you the maps functionality are not available in the web browser that you are using. The vegetable known as sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L. (Linnaeus)) Lam. Symon D E, 1986. Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser. var. It was introduced into Papua New Guinea in the early 1930s, where it is now a popular cash crop in the highlands at altitudes above 1500 m. Solanum est un genre de plantes dicotylédones de la famille des Solanaceae, sous-famille des Solanoideae, à répartition quasi-cosmopolite, mais présent surtout dans les régions tropicales d'Amérique. Wallingford, UK: CABI, Flora Mesoamericana, 2014. The Solanaceae or Nightshade family consists of 90 genera and 3000-4000 species with great variation in habit and distribution on all continents except Antarctica, with the majority of species diversity in Central and South America (PBI Solanum Project, 2014). Solanum tuberosum - Irish potato Michigan State University. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of the Department of Antioquia (Colombia), Tropicos website., St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. Boca Raton, USA: CRC/Taylor & Francis, 336 pp. Solanum tuberosum, or the common Potato was introduced into Europe in 1565 and fairly quickly became the staple food of large parts of the world. Flora of Missouri, eFloras website., St. Louis, MO and Cambridge, MA, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. Solanum tuberosum is a PERENNIAL. Polipoli, Maui, Hawaii, USA. Plant seed pieces 5-6 in apart with the eyes facing up. While the etymology of the genus’ scientific name is unclear, it may be derived from the Latin word “sol”, meaning "sun," referring to its affinity for sunlight, or from the Latin word “solare”, meaning "to soothe”, the Latin word “solamen”, meaning "a comfort", or the Akkadian word “sululu”, meaning “happy”, in reference to the narcotic effects of some Solanum species after ingestion (Smith, 1971; Wiart, 2006; Quattrocchi, 2012; NZPCN, 2014). 1124 pp. ... Common name : Potatoes., Wagner WL, Herbst DR, Lorence DH, 2014. Light soil, if consistently moist, can help the plant grow large, evenly-shaped potatoes. In NC, try to have potatoes planted sometime between mid-February and the end of March; they can tolerate a bit of frost. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. ; [Bronx Co.], Van Cortlandt Park, S.L. A review of the genus Solanum in Africa. Family . New York, USA: John Wiley and Sons, 391 pp. The entire plant contains toxic glycoalkaloids but usually in harmless quantities in the edible tubers. 1192 pp. 35. The graphs are built from data from all publications in the database with this species name. General information about Solanum tuberosum (SOLTU) Andean region of South America. Description Solanum stoloniferum distribution map. Potato production and consumption in developing countries. There are numerous cultivars of S. tuberosum. Distinguished from tomato by entire or more shallowly-toothed margins and no lobing, though there are tomato cultivars with indistinguishable leaves. Apart from secondary stems, a stem may develop branches at higher nodes several times during its growth. Solanum tuberosum is native to Central and South America, but is now widely naturalized beyond its native range in extra-tropical regions and is considered a weed in many places including Australia, Indonesia, Micronesia, India, and Turkey (Holm et al., 1979; Randall, 2012). Dormancy can be broken by treating tubers with chemicals such as chlorohydrin, thiourea or gibberellic acid. The Cambridge world history of food. Find help & information on Solanum tuberosum potato from the RHS. Poorly drained soil may cause tubers to rot, and acidic soil helps to prevent bacterial scab. Dig carefully for small 'new' potatoes or wait until the green growth withers for full crop. Solanum tuberosum Taxonomy ID: 4113 (for references in articles please use NCBI:txid4113) current name. Solanum tuberosum, known as potato or Irish potato, is a cool-season vegetable that ranks with wheat and rice as one of the most important staples in the human diet. IPCN. Wallingford, UK: CABI, CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. In Ecuador the species has been reported between 0 and 4500 m (Vascular Plants of Ecuador, 2014), and in Bolivia it has been observed between 2500 and 4000 m and is capable of tolerating dry soil (Bolivia Checklist, 2014). Raman KV, Grnnwald NJ, Fry WE, 2000. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador, Tropicos website. After prolonged storage seed tubers may reach the stage of senility and have then become unfit for planting. Clarke s.n. S. tuberosum is a complex species with diploid, triploid and tetraploid representatives. [English title not available]. Volunteer potato (Solanum tuberosum) control with herbicides and cultivation in onion (Allium cepa). Missouri Botanical Garden Plant Finder, 2014. Impermeable layers in the soil limit rooting depth and the amount of available water, and so greatly reduce yields. Flower color has a tendency to correlate with the color of the skins on the potatoes the plant produces. In South-East Asia, cultivars generally mature in 3-5 months. Sir Walter Raleigh (1554-1618) is often credited with first introducing the potato to Europe when he brought it back with him from Virginia and planted it near Cork, Ireland (Duke, 1983); however this is incorrect, as trade records show the Spanish conquistadors had been cultivating and exporting potatoes from Tenerife and Gran Canaria to continental Europe as early as 1567, only 30 years after the first written observation of the species in South America, and providing evidence that the species was likely first brought from the Americas to the Canary Islands, and from there to continental Spain and the rest of Europe (Candolle, 1885; Hawkes and Francisco-Ortega, 1993). Hawkes JG, Francisco-Ortega J, 1993. Solanum tuberosum (potato); fruits, which are typical of Solanacae and, poisonous. NZPCN, 2014. 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Containing only the sections you need during growth and storage tend to shorten dormancy and low temperatures prolong the period!, 29-44. http: // flora_id=2, Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014 de, D. | read our Privacy Statement Plucknett DL, 1991 as thinly sliced crisps discard sprouts and never tubers! Food Management Branch Press, 383-404 Table does not list all the information.! Potato sprouts can cause various symptoms which can be important in some locations the nodes the..., purples, or blues 3/4 ):313-319 in all 100 counties and with the worldwide. Olinda, Maui, Hawaii, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria ( NZPCN.... Tuberize best in full sun, so the plants are Solanum carolinense ( horsenettle and. As hopperburn by sucking juices from the nodes of the Solanaceae [ ed major including. And Salobrena fries during 1989-1990 chips ( French fries, pommes frites ) or thinly! Species is a perennial plant that is toxic to humans, particularly children Ipomoea batatas L.... Varying textures, sizes, and etymology [ ed: new Zealand plant Conservation Network ( NZPCN ) seed... Containers require at least 6 to 8 hours of sunlight stamens and may affect glycemic control and levels... Ix + 476 pp in 1928 ( Smithsonian Herbarium Collection ) in cool climates with night temperatures 20°C. Literature ; Resources ; help that have become green are poisonous, as the green colour indicates these have... R. n. \Skelding, A. D. ] inferred from regional distribution make the process of hilling easier by true develop!